Couple months ago, China's 'blue sky' project shut down numerous factories nationwide which involved in air contamination. This action caused a delay production of many factories, with supply cannot satisfy the high demand, the purchase price of certain products surged up.
告知时间：2017 年 12 月4 日凌晨10:00-11:30
告诉时间：2017 年 12 月7 日上午10:00-11:30
China made up its mind to solve the problem of pollution, social economic activities like trading and manufacture, which indirectly influent the ecology are gradually changing to become more environmentally friendly, for the sake of sustainable development.
After decades of almost unbridled industrial growth that left China with a legacy of rampant pollution, shrinking aquifers and soaring water prices, the government is cracking down on big industrial users, and the textile industry is in the front line.
Cloth-making ranks third in China for the amount of wastewater it discharges -- 3 billion tons a year -- after chemicals and paper, according to a 2015 report by New York-based non-profit group Natural Resources Defense Council, which has an office in Beijing.
The price of ensuring a sustainable water supply in China is yet another expense for factories that are already being squeezed by higher land and labor costs. And while automation and overseas production offer some respite, China’s companies are turning to other technologies to preserve operating margins that, even for major players such as Crystal International Group Ltd., can be less than 10%.
In 2015, China released its Water Ten Plan, ushering in stricter wastewater regulations. It sets out 10 general measures to control pollution discharge, promote technology and strengthen water management, with a 2020 deadline to meet its goals.
The stricter water rules are part of China’s actions to increase enforcement in environmental measures. Penalties for environmental violations by the country’s manufacturers rose 34 percent in 2015, from the previous year, according to China Water Risk, a Hong Kong-based non-profit organization focusing on disclosing risks related to China’s water resources.
Image:Bloomberg. Bacteria samples at the research laboratory in Hong Kong
The clean-up goes to the heart of an industry that leveraged decades of cheap labor and capital, and a unique close-knit supply chain of cloth, dyeing, sewing, fasteners, trimmings, labels and logistics, to deliver so-called fast fashion in textile industry -- rapidly shifting style from the catwalk to the mass market at prices that make clothes almost a disposable commodity.
“Customers are happy because clothes are even cheaper than a decade ago, and retailers can benefit from low costs,” said Felix Chung, a Hong Kong legislator representing the textile industry. “But the result is massive waste -- and the brands will need to pay for it in the future.”
With that model coming under fire for its environmental record, top brands like H&M, Target Corp. and Gap Inc. have adopted water quality standards for their suppliers and monitor them to protect their reputation with consumers.
澳门威斯尼斯人手机版，Owners of brands including H&M, Zara, Nike and Adidas are among those that have committed to achieve zero discharge of hazardous chemicals in production by 2020.
The problem is how to achieve better environment and labor standards without raising prices for consumers who have become addicted to cheap clothes industry.
In a Hong Kong laboratory, researchers are working with one of the world’s biggest cloth makers to improve its production process using a special ingredient: bacteria.
TAL Apparel Ltd., which has factories in mainland China and Southeast Asia, has teamed up with City University to identify bacteria that canclean up more efficiently the vast quantities of wastewater in the textile industry produces.
It’s one of hundreds of efforts by China’s private and state-owned companies to fix a problem that could end up rewriting the playbook of the textile industry.
“We talk about social responsibility, but people are not willing to pay for it,” said TAL’s chairman Harry Lee. “Stricter regulation requires manufacturers to upgrade their facilities. It’s good, but it requires capital.”
TAL had been buying bacteria from other labs to treat water used in washing cloth. Using bacteria instead of chemicals to digest organic compounds can cut the amount of waste sludge generated by as much as 80% and enables 100% of the water to be recycled in the plant.
During a production halt during the week-long Chinese New Year break this year, the bacteria in its system died, so TAL set up a research program that is using DNA sequencing to find a “super bacteria” that would be cheaper and more efficient, Lee said.
澳门威斯尼斯人手机版关于举行美国国家环保局刘晓宇研究员学术报告会的通知。But researching and upgrading technology are expensive. For many smaller suppliers on wafer-thin margins, it’s money they don’t have. In a June-July survey of 85 Chinese textile manufacturers by China Water Risk, more than half those polled said they have invested at least 2 million yuan to upgrade their factories -- equivalent to almost 40% of the average annual profit for a small textile company in 2012.
More than a quarter of the suppliers said the effort had increased operating costs by between 20% and 40%. 14% felt they may face the risk of having to shut down.
Image: Bloomberg. Plates of cell culture at the research laboratory
The day is coming when retailers will have to adjust their retail prices as manufacturers cannot continue to absorb the costs of compliance. “There are clear questions around the long-term business model, especially around potential cost-sharing by brands and consumers,” said Dawn McGregor, a Hong-Kong based manager at China Water Risk. “We’ve already seen manufacturers shutting down and consolidating, which means less choice and higher prices for brands.”
The big retail brands are also playing a part in trying to develop techniques that would cut costs and allow the industry to be less wasteful.
H&M Foundation, a non-profit organization under the Stefan Persson family, founders and main owners of H&M group, announced this September that research with its partner, the Hong Kong Research Institute of Textiles and Apparel, had developed a chemical process that could recyle blended textiles into new fabrics and yarns. The foundation offered a 1 million euro award this year to encourage ideas for a more sustainable way to use resources in the fashion industry.
At the Hong Kong lab, scientists hope to develop their super bacteria within two years. If they succeed, TAL will share the results with other manufacturers, Lee said.
“Hopefully more factories will be willing to use it,” said Lee, “But it’s a very slow process.”
Textile manufacturers are facing a dilemma, either being punished for a penalty of pollution or upgrading their facilities to meet up the environmental standard, both choices eventually lead to a high manufacture cost. We could expect customers will pay for the extra expense at the end.
Source: Bloomberg, The Guardian
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This presentation will cover methods for characterizing source emissions, and fate and transport of indoor air pollutants, including experiments and computer modeling.
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This presentation will focus on indoor air research to support EPA’s Chemical Safety and Sustainability Program.
Developing smart new strategies to design, produce, and use safer chemicals to minimize risks and prevent pollution is a priority for the U.S. EPA. EPA is developing a comprehensive approach to enhance the Agency’s management of existing chemicals and emerging materials under the Toxic Substances Control Act . EPA’s Office of Research and Development is conducting research to support safer, more sustainable use of chemicals in consumer products and chemicals used for other purposes and to better protect human health. Many of the EPA’s priority pollutants, including formaldehyde, polychlorinated Biphenyls , flame retardants, perfluorinated Chemicals , bisphenol A , phthalates, and pesticides, are released from a vast number of building materials and consumer products. The cutting edge research to be presented improves the methods and techniques used to measure and model emissions of these indoor air chemical contaminants present in various buildings, e.g. schools, office buildings and residences. The research develops new approaches and technologies to better quantify indoor sources of air pollution and apply indoor air quality models to predict their emissions, sink effects, and transport properties in the indoor environment. It identifies and characterizes sources of indoor air pollution and evaluates risk management options to improve indoor environment quality and to develop environmentally sustainable approaches for the environment.
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