告诉标题：Overview of Microgrid Research报 告 人：C.A.Cañizares教师告诉时间：今年三月十三日9:00—10:30告知地方：9号楼学术报告厅招待广大师生前往！电力高校二〇一七年10月十三日告诉摘要：微网对于电力系统来讲并非三个新定义，因为众多地区性小型电力网已经在环球范围内遍布铺排和动用，为诸如偏远乡下和小岛等特殊社区提供电能。但是，在智能和弹性电力网背景下，当今微网的立刻腾飞和配置超大程度上是出于整合分布式发电的急需，特别是在利用风能、太阳光能等可再生产资料源发电，以减低运转开销和裁减对景况影响。对于重要依附原油发电的单独微网来讲更是如此。该报告将概述滑铁卢大学Cañizares教师的应用切磋集团在微网方面张开的研讨专门的学业，包涵该团队对加拿大偏远社区微网进行的调查总计，以致对中间叁个社区微网—安徽大学概省西边的Kasabonika Lake First Nation 社区微网的详实介绍。团队本着KLFN微网进行了限制时间一年的监测，以明确与那类微网相关的重大才具难点。报告还将介绍该团队的重视钻探进献和果实，并提供多少个实在案例，侧重于微网调节、调控、牢固性和安排性等方面。特别地，报告将要偏远社区背景下详细座谈以下大旨：思考可再生财富不明显的能量管理；含高渗透率可变可再生财富微网的电压和功能调整以至牢固定义、建立模型、仿真和解析；思谋系统安全运会行的可再生财富器械的选址和容积优化，等。ABSTRACT: Microgrids are not new to power systems, since these local and small grids have been widely deployed and utilized for electricity supply in remote and isolated communities such as islands and remote villages throughout the world. However, there is nowadays a rapid development and deployment of microgrids in the context of smart and resilient power networks, in good part motivated by the need to integrate distributed generation, especially if power by renewable resources such as wind and solar, to reduce operational costs and the environmental impact of these grids, particularly for diesel-depended isolated microgrids.The presentation will provide a general overview of the research work being carried out by Prof. Canizares’ group at the University of Waterloo on microgrids, including a summary of a survey carried out by the group on remote microgrids in Canada, and a detailed deion of the microgrid in one of these communities, namely, the Kasabonika 雷克 First Nation community microgrid in Northern Ontario, where a one-year measuring campaign was carried out to identify main technical issues associated with these kinds of microgrids.A general deion of the group’s main research contributions and findings, with several practical examples will be provided, focusing on microgrid dispatch, control, stability, and optimal planning. In particular, the following subjects will be discussed in some detail in the context of remote microgrids: Energy Management Systems considering renewable power uncertainty; voltage and frequency control and stability definitions, modeling, simulation, and analysis in microgrids with high penetration of variable renewable power; and optimal placement and sizing of renewable power equipment for minimization of costs and diesel use, considering secure system operation.报告人介绍：ClaudioCañizares大学子，滑铁卢大学电气与计算机工程系全职业教育授、安徽大学约电力集团接济讲席教授，自1991年以来担负了本校好多学问和行政职分。IEEE Fellow，加拿大皇家学会会士，加拿大皇家学会应用科学与工程部经理，加拿大工程院院士。曾获二零一七年IEEE PES优质电力工程教育者奖，二〇一四年IEEE加拿大电力奖章，以致IEEE PES技委的多类奖项和赞誉，并在四个IEEE PES技委、专门的工作组和天职组中担负领导职分。他于1983年在厄瓜多尔共和国圣何塞国立理教院获得电气程序员学位，1983年至1994年在母校担任不一致的学术和行政职责，于一九九〇年和1991年各自得到马里兰高校麦迪逊分校电气工程博士和博士学位。其商讨职业重申于在竞争力能源市镇和智能电力网背景下的司空见惯电力系统、微网和财富系统的平安、调整、优化、建立模型、仿真和计量方面。在这几个领域，他领头或出席了政党和供销合作社的多个基金项目，并与加拿大国内外各工产业界和高校的钻研职员合营，教导/协同引导了汪洋研讨员和博士。他写作/合著了无数高被引的期刊和集会散文，以至若干才具报告、书籍章节和专利，并应邀在世上众多机商谈平构和会议议举行八个核心演说、研究商量会和告知。
By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44
barn n. 谷仓
Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.
Twenty minutes from the centre of Glasgow, the tussocky expanse of Eaglesham Moor is popular with dog-walkers and cyclists. These days they enjoy some 90km (56 miles) of paths that have been built on the moor around Whitelee, Europe’s second-biggest onshore wind farm, by the operator, ScottishPower. The site’s appeal is twofold: it is close to a large number of electricity-consuming homes; and a barren moor makes a less controversial place to scatter 215 turbines than, say, a picturesque Highland mountainside. Whitelee’s success—it has expanded twice since starting operations in 2009—reflects the growth of Scotland’s renewable-energy industry as a whole.
In 2011, for the first time, renewables were the second-biggest source of electricity generated in Scotland, accounting for 27%, behind nuclear power but ahead of coal and gas; in England, renewables generated only 6% of the total. Stand, buffeted, on Eaglesham Moor and you get an inkling of why: around a quarter of all Europe’s wind energy crosses Scotland’s land mass and surrounding waters. Factor in its potential in tidal and wave energy, plus an expertise in North Sea oil and gas that can be transferred to greener industries, and the notion of Scotland as a “Saudi Arabia of renewables” does not seem too far-fetched.
The political climate helps, too. At Westminster, bickering within the coalition, especially over wind farms, has stymied progress over renewables. By contrast, the Scottish National Party (SNP), which runs Scotland’s devolved government, has spent years talking up the country’s renewable-energy prowess and British dependence on it. With some justification: Scotland exported 26% of the electricity it generated to the rest of Britain in 2011, and transfers to England are at a record high. The SNP touts energy as a central plank of an independent Scotland’s economy, should voters opt for separation in next year’s referendum.
Alex Salmond, the first minister, vows that Scotland will generate the equivalent of 100% of its electricity needs from renewable sources by
But external factors have helped, too. In particular, a European Union directive requires Britain to derive 15% of its energy demand from renewables by 2020. Generators of such energy get subsidies from a Westminster scheme funded by consumers throughout Britain. That is a major boon to Scotland’s renewables industry. It is also, potentially, the cause of its biggest worry—one among several.
Not everyone is as sanguine about wind farms as the ramblers on Eaglesham Moor. Elsewhere, the proliferating turbines are contentious. As in England, the two strands of environmentalism—the push for green energy and the desire to keep nature pristine—still conflict. Moreover, for most other sites, transmission costs are high. National Grid, which operates the British transmission system, charges electricity generators according to their location relative to demand; Scotland’s windiest spots tend to be remote. Meanwhile, as Professor Paul Younger of Glasgow University points out, Scotland still needs to plug an impending gap in its supply of “baseload” energy (power that is available day and night, regardless of the weather). Buying more gas is the likeliest solution
produce manure 肥料; 粪肥 dig manure into the soil 在泥土中撒化肥
be handsomely rewarded
The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do
being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.
hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .
An inconvenient truth是黄金年代部有关天气变化和天底下变暖的纪录片，维基上译作《难以忽略的庐山真面目目》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.
Shock to the system
At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new, costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.
prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.
kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by 15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.
smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It's O.K. I smoothed things out.
But, despite the SNP’s enthusiasm for both, the biggest shadow over Scotland’s renewables industry is cast by independence. A separated Scotland would probably remain part of the same British energy market: all sides benefit from a system that allows the easy transmission of electricity from England’s power stations to Scotland when the winds are calm up north, and from Scotland’s wind farms to the south on days when they have excess capacity.
The worry is the impact that independence might have on how Britain applies that EU directive. At the moment, no one knows exactly what that will be; but Britain’s government might well prefer to invest in its own renewables industry rather than subsidising Scotland’s, or to buy cheap renewable energy from elsewhere in Europe. Scotland’s competitively priced onshore-wind power would probably find a buyer, but more expensive offshore, tidal and wave energy could be a harder sell.
Fergus Ewing, Scotland’s energy minister, suggests that England, which itself faces an energy shortfall, will need Scottish power regardless: “England will need Scottish energy to keep the lights on by 2015,” he says. But it would be ironic if independence were to undermine one of the SNP’s flagship industries.
英格兰的能源县长费Gus·尤因 （Fergus Ewing）建议，面对的财富贫乏的英格兰无论怎么着都会要求苏格兰的能源：“英格兰直接到2016年都需求来自英格兰的能源把灯点亮，”他探究。假设因为独立而损坏了英格兰的支柱行业之生龙活虎，可正是令人左支右绌。
pocket v.: keep or take (sth) for oneself (esp dishonestly)
China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean energy additions, according to a new study.
1.be popular with 受...欢迎
例句:His engaging personality made him popular with his peers.
2.for the moment 暂时；目前
例句:You've got enough to think about for the moment.
3.point out 指出
例句:Critics point out that the prince, on his income, should be paying tax.
4.power station 发电站
例句:A workman was plucked from the roof of a burning power station by a police helicopter.
* She pays 2 for them, sells them for 4 and pockets the* difference.
anathema n. detested person or thing
The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time, solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.
Racial prejudice is (an) anathema to me.自家对种族门户之争深恶痛绝.
mourn v. feel or show sorrow or regret for the loss of sb/sth
Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent, reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower, bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.
* We all mourn the destruction of a well-loved building.*
澳门威斯尼斯人手机版清洁能源的肮脏秘密，或因独立遭受重击。mask v. conceal (sth); disguise
Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW－or half the current global capacity in coal power－by 2022.
* mask one's fear by a show of confidence*
havoc n. widespread damage; great destruction
"What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics (panels)," Birol said. "We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022."
make havoc of sth;play/wreak havoc with sth: damage or upset sth
at first brush
In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world's "undisputed renewable growth leader", driven by concerns about air pollution and capacity targets that were outlined in the country's 13th Five-Year Plan(2016-20).
insulate sb/sth from/against sth(fig) protect sb/sth from the unpleasant effects of sth
protect sb/sth from the unpleasant effects of sth
The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the world's panels.
But the more renewable generators there are, the more they drag down prices.
澳门威斯尼斯人手机版清洁能源的肮脏秘密，或因独立遭受重击。the world is caught in a vicious cycle
The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply, and prices.
subsidies foster development of subsidies
It is a fair bet that
The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted that China's renewable energy policies are being modified in order to address these challenges.
buck v. (US infml) resist or oppose (sb/sth)
Don't try to buck the system. 不要批驳那么些制度
China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies, together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the deployment of solar energy.
private investment will dry up
eat into sth: consume sth; destroy; dissolve; corrode
Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to growth－IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW by 2022.
* Acids eat into metal.*
* *Paying for that new carpet has eaten into my** savings.
Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.
double v. (cause sth to) become twice as much or as many
"grid updates have doubled network costs since 2008-09"
Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76) per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.
dromedary n 单峰骆驼
price stay high; price falls; sb. slash prices
Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects to develop the"next generation" of technology in wind and wave power.
grumble ~ (at/to sb) (about/at/over sth): complain or protest in a bad-tempered way
大不列颠及英格兰联合王国和九州的商量人口今日宣告了七个新类型去商量“下三个时代“的风能和波浪能的科技(science and technology卡塔尔(قطر。
*Why grumble at me about your own stupid mistakes?*
The UK's Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also receive funding from the of China.
"Smart grids bolstered by big data will do more to keep demand in line with supply."
bolster v.: ~ sb/sth (up)give support to sb/sth; strengthen or reinforce sth.
bolster sb's morale/courage
* *The government borrowed money to bolster up the economy.**
nibble v. ~ (at sth)take tiny bites of sth; eat small amounts
crowd-sourcing(众包): the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers
lay waste : to cause very bad damage to (something)
* The fire laid waste tothe land.*
As alternative to fosil fuels, renewables are welcomed by greens and seen by governments as tools to combat climate change. With subisidies from governments in both developed and developing countries, the past few decades saw growth in renewables. Yet renewables only account for 7% in the world's energy, while fosil fuels take up 80%. But their subsidy-driven growth did push their price down. Yet if they continue to penetrate into the energy market, it will not only hurt traditional energy industry, but also pose difficulties for the renewable industry itself.
Except the facilities, generating wind and solar power themselves does not cost a dime. That means the more renewables created, the more they are likely to drag down energy price. This will drive some traditional energy companies out of the market and, moreover, hurt the renewable producers themselves. For if the price goes down, so will private investors' profitablity and their willingness to pour money into this industry. Yet as the industry expands, it needs more financial support. With decreasing private investment, the government will be pressured to give renewable producers more subsidies.
Another flaw for renewables is their intermittency. So it's impossible for us to totally depend on renewables; we also need traditional energy when no wind or sunshine is available.As for the customers of traditional companies, some will shift to renewables. And those who continue to use fosil fuel generated energy have to bear higher price given the decreasing demand. Moreover, in California home generators are allowed to fed excessive energy from their solar panels into the gird; the grid is complaining about the payment.
To ensure enough fossil- fuel capacity available, the government need to subsidize more to those companies. Yet some of these fuels,like brown coal，are dirty. In the long run ,we can build a smart system combined with renewables and standby fossil fuel capacity and make it a package deal. The customer pay for the service to ensure continued supply of electricity under this system. Yet today's grid system were not built for remittant solar and wind power. So investment are needed to make sure facilities including a smart grid system in place. That may arouse political issues for citizens may complain about higher prices to support these investments and possible blackouts.
The progress may be slow and renewables are not expected to power every home.