澳门威斯尼斯人手机版清洁能源的肮脏秘密,或

告诉标题:Overview of Microgrid Research报 告 人:C.A.Cañizares教师告诉时间:今年三月十三日9:00—10:30告知地方:9号楼学术报告厅招待广大师生前往!电力高校二〇一七年10月十三日告诉摘要:微网对于电力系统来讲并非三个新定义,因为众多地区性小型电力网已经在环球范围内遍布铺排和动用,为诸如偏远乡下和小岛等特殊社区提供电能。但是,在智能和弹性电力网背景下,当今微网的立刻腾飞和配置超大程度上是出于整合分布式发电的急需,特别是在利用风能、太阳光能等可再生产资料源发电,以减低运转开销和裁减对景况影响。对于重要依附原油发电的单独微网来讲更是如此。该报告将概述滑铁卢大学Cañizares教师的应用切磋集团在微网方面张开的研讨专门的学业,包涵该团队对加拿大偏远社区微网进行的调查总计,以致对中间叁个社区微网—安徽大学概省西边的Kasabonika Lake First Nation 社区微网的详实介绍。团队本着KLFN微网进行了限制时间一年的监测,以明确与那类微网相关的重大才具难点。报告还将介绍该团队的重视钻探进献和果实,并提供多少个实在案例,侧重于微网调节、调控、牢固性和安排性等方面。特别地,报告将要偏远社区背景下详细座谈以下大旨:思考可再生财富不明显的能量管理;含高渗透率可变可再生财富微网的电压和功能调整以至牢固定义、建立模型、仿真和解析;思谋系统安全运会行的可再生财富器械的选址和容积优化,等。ABSTRACT: Microgrids are not new to power systems, since these local and small grids have been widely deployed and utilized for electricity supply in remote and isolated communities such as islands and remote villages throughout the world. However, there is nowadays a rapid development and deployment of microgrids in the context of smart and resilient power networks, in good part motivated by the need to integrate distributed generation, especially if power by renewable resources such as wind and solar, to reduce operational costs and the environmental impact of these grids, particularly for diesel-depended isolated microgrids.The presentation will provide a general overview of the research work being carried out by Prof. Canizares’ group at the University of Waterloo on microgrids, including a summary of a survey carried out by the group on remote microgrids in Canada, and a detailed deion of the microgrid in one of these communities, namely, the Kasabonika 雷克 First Nation community microgrid in Northern Ontario, where a one-year measuring campaign was carried out to identify main technical issues associated with these kinds of microgrids.A general deion of the group’s main research contributions and findings, with several practical examples will be provided, focusing on microgrid dispatch, control, stability, and optimal planning. In particular, the following subjects will be discussed in some detail in the context of remote microgrids: Energy Management Systems considering renewable power uncertainty; voltage and frequency control and stability definitions, modeling, simulation, and analysis in microgrids with high penetration of variable renewable power; and optimal placement and sizing of renewable power equipment for minimization of costs and diesel use, considering secure system operation.报告人介绍:ClaudioCañizares大学子,滑铁卢大学电气与计算机工程系全职业教育授、安徽大学约电力集团接济讲席教授,自1991年以来担负了本校好多学问和行政职分。IEEE Fellow,加拿大皇家学会会士,加拿大皇家学会应用科学与工程部经理,加拿大工程院院士。曾获二零一七年IEEE PES优质电力工程教育者奖,二〇一四年IEEE加拿大电力奖章,以致IEEE PES技委的多类奖项和赞誉,并在四个IEEE PES技委、专门的工作组和天职组中担负领导职分。他于1983年在厄瓜多尔共和国圣何塞国立理教院获得电气程序员学位,1983年至1994年在母校担任不一致的学术和行政职责,于一九九〇年和1991年各自得到马里兰高校麦迪逊分校电气工程博士和博士学位。其商讨职业重申于在竞争力能源市镇和智能电力网背景下的司空见惯电力系统、微网和财富系统的平安、调整、优化、建立模型、仿真和计量方面。在这几个领域,他领头或出席了政党和供销合作社的多个基金项目,并与加拿大国内外各工产业界和高校的钻研职员合营,教导/协同引导了汪洋研讨员和博士。他写作/合著了无数高被引的期刊和集会散文,以至若干才具报告、书籍章节和专利,并应邀在世上众多机商谈平构和会议议举行八个核心演说、研究商量会和告知。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 1

翻译按:任何三个行当的革命都会境遇既有势力的阻止。读完本文,你将精晓到干净财富为啥不能够立即替代旧财富的四个原因,以至大概的缓慢解决方案——政党的涉企和调护医疗。
正文译自《管医学人》7月五日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

管艺术学人:苏格兰可再生财富崛起 或因独立遭逢重击

附件:

barn n. 谷仓

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 2

Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

想听音频点击这里外刊赏读

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 3

Twenty minutes from the centre of Glasgow, the tussocky expanse of Eaglesham Moor is popular with dog-walkers and cyclists. These days they enjoy some 90km (56 miles) of paths that have been built on the moor around Whitelee, Europe’s second-biggest onshore wind farm, by the operator, ScottishPower. The site’s appeal is twofold: it is close to a large number of electricity-consuming homes; and a barren moor makes a less controversial place to scatter 215 turbines than, say, a picturesque Highland mountainside. Whitelee’s success—it has expanded twice since starting operations in 2009—reflects the growth of Scotland’s renewable-energy industry as a whole.

距格Russ哥市基本20分钟路程的地点,有大器晚成处由伊格尔沙姆沼泽蔓延开的草莽一贯遭到遛狗者和车子爱好者的追求捧场,而那些天他们又足以尽情漫步在新构筑的96公里(56英米)长的沼间小径上,这么些小径坐落于澳国第二陆地上风电场怀Terry西临,由英格兰电力公司构筑。选址在那有着双重意义:它既附近要求多量消功耗力的居住区,同一时间与如画的英格兰高地山腰比较,它贫瘠的沼泽地质也是散落安置217个风力涡轮机的不二筛选。怀Terry风电场的成功——自二〇一〇年始于运营于今已扩大了2倍范围,整个反映了英格兰再生财富行当的演变。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 4

In 2011, for the first time, renewables were the second-biggest source of electricity generated in Scotland, accounting for 27%, behind nuclear power but ahead of coal and gas; in England, renewables generated only 6% of the total. Stand, buffeted, on Eaglesham Moor and you get an inkling of why: around a quarter of all Europe’s wind energy crosses Scotland’s land mass and surrounding waters. Factor in its potential in tidal and wave energy, plus an expertise in North Sea oil and gas that can be transferred to greener industries, and the notion of Scotland as a “Saudi Arabia of renewables” does not seem too far-fetched.

二〇一二年,可再生财富的发电量第三回攻下了北爱尔兰总发电量的27%,成为英格兰电力的第二大来源——坐落于核电之后,煤气电力在此以前;而在英格兰,可再生能源的发电量只攻克了6%。假若你献身于伊格尔沙姆沼泽,只怕就能够对其缘由略窥生机勃勃二了,全南美洲的风能大约有四成是从苏格兰的陆地和周边水域穿过的。就是因为有它潜在的潮汐能和波能,再加上能将克利特公里的油气能源转移到高粱红产业中的专利技巧,英格兰被称呼“可再生财富中的沙特阿拉伯”也就简单驾驭了。

The political climate helps, too. At Westminster, bickering within the coalition, especially over wind farms, has stymied progress over renewables. By contrast, the Scottish National Party (SNP), which runs Scotland’s devolved government, has spent years talking up the country’s renewable-energy prowess and British dependence on it. With some justification: Scotland exported 26% of the electricity it generated to the rest of Britain in 2011, and transfers to England are at a record high. The SNP touts energy as a central plank of an independent Scotland’s economy, should voters opt for separation in next year’s referendum.

只是,政治天气也在中间起了拉动之用。在威斯敏斯特,联合政坛内部常常常有扯皮,特别关于风力发电厂。那曾经阻碍了可再生财富行当的提升。相比较之下,英格兰民族党,相当于苏格兰自治政党的执政府,几年来直接从事于可再生财富手艺的前行,以期拿到大不列颠及英格兰联合王国政坛对其电力输出的依据。公平地来讲:就2013年一年,苏格兰就向英帝国别的地区输入了其总电量的26%,达到了对英格兰输电量的最高值。假若在后年的独门选举中苏格兰人援救脱离大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国单独以来,财富行业开展成为英格兰独立经济体的主干行业。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 5

Alex Salmond, the first minister, vows that Scotland will generate the equivalent of 100% of its electricity needs from renewable sources by

  1. That pledge might be tough to meet should oil and gas prices fall, making renewables look costlier; but his administration has at least backed his words with action. Within the devolved arrangements, planning decisions are Scotland’s main lever over energy policy. Since 2007, when Mr Salmond first took office, his ministers have approved many more applications for large wind farms (ie, those with a generating capacity of over 50MW) than the Westminster government has for England and Wales. Foreign firms have noticed this enthusiasm for the sector: Areva, Gamesa and Samsung have all said they will open factories making kit for offshore turbines in Scotland.

英格兰上位县长萨尔Mond(AlexSalmond)许诺,到二〇二〇年英格兰开展落到实处电力完全无碳化。但意气风发旦油气价格下挫,可再生财富随之水涨船高,那风度翩翩承诺便很难贯彻。然则,萨尔Mond内阁政党仍是贯彻那豆蔻年华对象付诸施行。在任时期,英格兰将绸缪决策作为调整能源政策的主要手腕。自二〇〇六年萨尔蒙德先生先是次上场起,当局政党通过了汪洋的大型风力发电站的申请(举个例子,生产数量功率大于50MW),远远超过了威斯敏斯特政坛需要给英格兰和Will士的发电站数量。英格兰政党对财富板块的不竭扶持吸引了大地比超级多盛名集团关注:法兰西共和国的阿海珐公司、Spain的歌美飒公司以致高丽国的三星(Samsung卡塔尔(قطر‎公司早就决定在英格兰开设工厂建设海上发电集散地。

But external factors have helped, too. In particular, a European Union directive requires Britain to derive 15% of its energy demand from renewables by 2020. Generators of such energy get subsidies from a Westminster scheme funded by consumers throughout Britain. That is a major boon to Scotland’s renewables industry. It is also, potentially, the cause of its biggest worry—one among several.

其间相似也会有表面效能,特别是欧洲结盟推进可再生财富使用指令,其供给到后年,United Kingdom必需有15%的电力来源于可再生能源。为此,英帝国制订由消费者投资的威斯敏斯特安顿,向可再生财富发电厂颁发特津。那对也着实是一个推动英格兰的可再生财富行业进步的最首要利好新闻。然则,那也产生了二个神秘的主题素材——几个中最要紧的标题。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 6

Not everyone is as sanguine about wind farms as the ramblers on Eaglesham Moor. Elsewhere, the proliferating turbines are contentious. As in England, the two strands of environmentalism—the push for green energy and the desire to keep nature pristine—still conflict. Moreover, for most other sites, transmission costs are high. National Grid, which operates the British transmission system, charges electricity generators according to their location relative to demand; Scotland’s windiest spots tend to be remote. Meanwhile, as Professor Paul Younger of Glasgow University points out, Scotland still needs to plug an impending gap in its supply of “baseload” energy (power that is available day and night, regardless of the weather). Buying more gas is the likeliest solution

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版,对于风力发电站,不是每一位都就像伊格尔沙姆的游人相符无虑无忧。在别的地点,涡轮机数量的充实是饱受纠纷的。在苏格兰,两派环保论如故争辨不休——一方愿意推动原野绿财富发展,另外一方则可望保持自然的贞烈。此外,对绝大多数任哪里方来讲,输电花销也非常高昂。担负United Kingdom电力运输的国家用电器网,依据电厂与必要地的远近些日子收取工资;而英格兰风力最可取则地方偏远。同期,正如圣何塞大学的PaulYounger教授所说,弥补“基本装载”财富的必要仍然是英格兰的急如星火(指甭管天气好坏,白天晚上都能使用的能量)。要解决那个标题,购买更加多的天然气是最优接受。

produce manure 肥料; 粪肥 dig manure into the soil 在泥土中撒化肥

教育学人封面

前不久,相似于图中的湖北清华学同的大猛氏兽形状的太阳热辐射能发电类型曾经很宽泛了。

Beggar they neighbour

be handsomely rewarded

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched to think that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池清劲风涡轮机表达大概150年后,他们依旧只发生世界7%的电力。不过,一些值得注意的作业正在发生。十多年前还处于财富种类的外围,它们今后的增长速度超越其余其余财富,它们下落的本钱使其和化石燃料相通有竞争力。 BP,一家原油集团,预计可再生财富将占未来20年环球财富供应增加的六分之三。世界正在进入多少个干净,Infiniti和降价电力的风姿罗曼蒂克世不再是疑忌的。也是时间难点。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty, need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

2)但是,有三个20万亿澳元的小问题。以前几日到以往须要在现在四十几年大量的投资,以代替旧的喷出蒸发雾的发电厂和晋升给买主带来电的电缆塔和电缆。常常投资者向往把钱投入电力,因为它提供可靠的回报。可是,赫色财富有四个龌龊的机密。它配置得更加的多,它就能让来自其余来源的电力价格猛降越来越多。那使得通向无碳的前程的接入难以决定,在在那之中间,即使要让灯继续发光的话,多数发电本领,无论清洁照旧污染,须要保证盈利。除非市集是稳固的,不然对行当的津贴只会升高。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better use of it.

An inconvenient truth是黄金年代部有关天气变化和天底下变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽略的庐山真面目目》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

3)政策拟订者已经把这一个尴尬的实为看作停止可再生能源的二个缘由。在Australia和中中原人民共和国的局部地区,可再生财富的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。可是,实施方案不是越来越少的风和太阳热辐射能。而是重新思谋世界怎样为清洁财富定价,以便越来越好地行使它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are addictive.
    4)其基本难点是,政坛扶助的可再生财富已经被强加到二个例外时代设计出的商海。在20世纪的大超级多时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的独自据有公司创建和运输的。从20世纪80年间开头,在那之中大多把持被打破,被私有化和动向,使市集力量能够决定最棒投资趋向。前不久只有约6%的电力顾客从操纵公司拿到他们的电力。可是,随地去碳电力供应的下压力已经使得国家背后潜回商场。那是破坏性的,有多少个原因。第一是补贴制度自己。别的三个是风和太阳的习性固有的:它们的间歇性和它们十分低的运营开支。这多少个原因协助解释了怎么电力价格低和集体补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new, costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

5)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自2009年的话约为8000亿台币,扭曲了商场。它是由于高贵的理由——为了对抗天气变化和慰勉发展新的、昂贵的才能,包含风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。然则,由于财富成效的持续加强和金融风险的影响,富裕国家的电力消耗自掘坟墓,补贴就在此儿出现。结果导致过量的发电才能,大幅削减了电力服务集团从平淡无奇电力市集获取的受益,进而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by 15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

6)其次,墨玉绿电源陆续。风和太阳的风云万变—— 极其是在未有合适天气的国家——意味着涡轮机和太阳电瓶板仅在局地年华致电。为了保全电力流动,系统依附常规的发电站,举例煤、原油或核能,在可再生能源减弱起到作用。可是因为他们绵绵居于空闲动静,他们开采很难吸引私人投资人。所以,为了维持灯亮着,他们须要国有资金。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    7)种种人都受到第八个要素的熏陶:可再生财富具备可忽视的要么是零分界运行本钱——因为风和日光是免费的。在二个趋向于以低于长时间资金分娩能源的市镇中,风能和太阳光能从运维费用越来越高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)那里拿走生意,降低电价,进而裁减了全数人的低收入。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind farms to keep coal plants in business.

8)可再生财富的渗透率越高,这一个标题越严重——特别是在饱和市镇。在第生机勃勃心得到影响的北美洲,电力服务公司遭到了收入下降、资金财产搁浅和商城瓦解的“失去的十年”。二零一八年,德意志联邦共和国两大电力代理商E.ON和RubiconWE两家都分拆成两家。在美利坚联邦合众国可再生能源丰硕的地区,电力代理商很难找到新工厂的投资人。具备一大波风力的地方,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有专门的学业可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too, using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect, politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被再次调节,因为投资关键去往收益于公私支撑的园地。冲突的是,那代表扶助可再生财富的国度更加多,他们为健康发电厂支付的也愈来愈多,来行使“容积支付”来消除间歇性。实际上,政治家而不是商场重新决定如何制止停电。他们常常犯错误:德意志对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排气量上涨,就算其对可再生能源提供庞大补贴。未有生机勃勃种新的措施,可再生财富革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem. Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It's O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好音讯是,新技能能够帮助消除那些难题。数字化,智能电度量提醒仪表和电瓶使集团和家园能够解决她俩的急需——比如在晚间做一些财富密集型的行事。那有利于应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发电站,轻巧灵活调解产量,变得尤为受款待,高压电力网也能够更管用地在网络上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix it.
    11)越来越大的职分是再次设计电力市镇,以展现对灵活供应和必要的新需要。他们理应更频仍地调价,以体现天气的不平静。在极度稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起效果来阻止停电。市集应该表彰愿意利用更加少的电力的人来平衡电力网,正如他们嘉勉这多少个产生更多电力的人。账单能够被协会变为越来越高或更低,这决议于客商多么鲜明地希望向来保证电力供应——有一点点像保单。总体上看,政策制订者应该清楚,他们有题目,原因不是可再生财富,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们相应化解它。

原稿出处:文学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、赏识语言之用,否决任何转发及用于其余商业用项。本译文所涉法律后果均由本身担当。本身同意简书平台在接获有关小说权人的文告后,删除随笔。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 7

倡议他们的邻居

But, despite the SNP’s enthusiasm for both, the biggest shadow over Scotland’s renewables industry is cast by independence. A separated Scotland would probably remain part of the same British energy market: all sides benefit from a system that allows the easy transmission of electricity from England’s power stations to Scotland when the winds are calm up north, and from Scotland’s wind farms to the south on days when they have excess capacity.

只是,纵然英格兰民族党既着力支持可再生能源行业,又协理独立,独立难点要么使英格兰的可再生财富行业笼罩在大片的影子之下的祸首。脱离大不列颠及英格兰联合王国的英格兰恐怕还恐怕会保留部分United Kingdom财富市场:要想二者达成双赢,独有建设布局三个那样的种类才有一点都不小可能率,当北边无风时,则允许由英格兰发电厂向英格兰自由运输电力,当西边风电厂发电量过剩时,就从北边运到南边。

The worry is the impact that independence might have on how Britain applies that EU directive. At the moment, no one knows exactly what that will be; but Britain’s government might well prefer to invest in its own renewables industry rather than subsidising Scotland’s, or to buy cheap renewable energy from elsewhere in Europe. Scotland’s competitively priced onshore-wind power would probably find a buyer, but more expensive offshore, tidal and wave energy could be a harder sell.

忧虑的是,若英格兰退出了英帝国而独自,那么大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国要怎么着促成欧洲结盟推动可再生财富使用指令所钦赐的目标?到特别时候,未有人会明白将会化为啥样;可是大不列颠及英格兰联合王国政党恐怕宁愿加大对本国可再生能源行业的投资,也不会向英格兰寻求支援,大概从澳国其他地点购买优惠的可再生能源。而英格兰的新大陆风能由于价格具有竞争优势或然轻易找到买家,不过更为高昂的近海风能、潮汐能以致波能就很难卖出了。

Fergus Ewing, Scotland’s energy minister, suggests that England, which itself faces an energy shortfall, will need Scottish power regardless: “England will need Scottish energy to keep the lights on by 2015,” he says. But it would be ironic if independence were to undermine one of the SNP’s flagship industries.

英格兰的能源县长费Gus·尤因 (Fergus Ewing)建议,面对的财富贫乏的英格兰无论怎么着都会要求苏格兰的能源:“英格兰直接到2016年都需求来自英格兰的能源把灯点亮,”他探究。假设因为独立而损坏了英格兰的支柱行业之生龙活虎,可正是令人左支右绌。

pocket v.: keep or take (sth) for oneself (esp dishonestly)

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean energy additions, according to a new study.

正文现身的单词

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 8

用语解释

1.be popular with 受...欢迎

例句:His engaging personality made him popular with his peers.

他可爱的特性使他深受同龄人的爱慕。

2.for the moment 暂时;目前

例句:You've got enough to think about for the moment.

时下你要思谋的思想政治工作够多了。

3.point out 指出

例句:Critics point out that the prince, on his income, should be paying tax.

批评家建议王子的收益相应纳税。

4.power station 发电站

例句:A workman was plucked from the roof of a burning power station by a police helicopter.

一名工人被警用直接升学机从着火力发电站的屋顶上救了出去。

*             She pays 2 for them, sells them for 4 and pockets the* difference.

二〇一五年,中中原人民共和国承当了多于七成的大世界可再生财富,根据意气风发项新的学习展现,那是风度翩翩项环球米红财富合成物的笔录。

anathema n. detested person or thing

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time, solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

                Racial prejudice is (an) anathema to me.自家对种族门户之争深恶痛绝.

国际财富代理核心(IEA),一家在实行在巴黎的问讯集团,开采可再生产资料源占新财富的伍分一。有史以来第3回,太阳热辐射能合成物发展的比饱含煤炭在内的任何燃料快。

mourn v.  feel or show sorrow or regret for the loss of sb/sth

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent, reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower, bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

*             We all mourn the destruction of a well-loved building.*

二零一八年,全世界太阳光能体量拉长了八分之四,在中原担任了贴近的六分之三的能量拉长的场地下跌成并超过74千兆瓦。同不经常候中华夏族民共和国也是世上用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市集的带头人士。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版清洁能源的肮脏秘密,或因独立遭受重击。mask   v.    conceal (sth); disguise  

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global capacity in coal power-by 2022.

*                 mask one's fear by a show of confidence*

IEA的实践总管Fatih Birol预计在2022年可再生产资料源覆盖的面积能够加强十亿Watt,只怕以后全世界用煤量的二分一。

havoc  n.  widespread damage; great destruction

"What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics (panels)," Birol said. "We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022."

            make havoc of sth;play/wreak havoc with sth: damage or upset sth

“大家正在目睹贰个新太阳热辐射能电板时期的降生,“ Birol说,”大家揣测在2022年,太阳热辐射能光板的能量会比任何任何可再生产资料源才能提升的快。“

at first brush

In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world's "undisputed renewable growth leader", driven by concerns about air pollution and capacity targets that were outlined in the country's 13th Five-Year Plan(2016-20).

insulate sb/sth from/against sth(fig) protect sb/sth from the unpleasant effects of sth

IEA的告诉中,中国被感觉是世界上“不得不承认的可再生产资料源的首长“,在对情状污染和能量目的的怀恋下,可再生产资料源的支付被标注在中原第10个八年安顿中。

           protect sb/sth from the unpleasant effects of sth

The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the world's panels.

But the more renewable generators there are, the more they drag down prices.

IEA的告知中还说中夏族民共和国代表了满世界太阳光能板的须要量,中夏族民共和国创立了环球百分之60左右的阳光能板。

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版清洁能源的肮脏秘密,或因独立遭受重击。the world is caught in a vicious cycle

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply, and prices.

subsidies foster development of subsidies

IEA建议,由于商场的体量,中黄炎子孙民共和国国策的前进会对全世界的太阳光能须要,供应和价格产生潜濡默化。

It is a fair bet that

The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted that China's renewable energy policies are being modified in order to address these challenges.

buck v. (US infml) resist or oppose (sb/sth)

报告中声明了中华的可再生财富的津贴和互连网集成的标价不断增高,会对前程的前进有神秘阻碍,并感觉中华夏儿女民共和国对可再生财富的政策应当借助那么些阻碍做出调节。

         Don't try to buck the system. 不要批驳那么些制度

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies, together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the deployment of solar energy.

private investment will dry up

中原从停放电价项目发展到有月光蓝证件的定额分配制。IEA感到这个新的国策加上能量市镇的重新收拾,新的电子通信传输线,和布满式发电的加多会加紧太阳光能财富的布满。

eat into sth: consume sth; destroy; dissolve; corrode

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW by 2022.

*                    Acids eat into metal.*

在内阁政策解决前行阻碍的图景下,IEA解析发今后2022年,中华夏族民共和国向导的天下可再生财富的体量会在扩大三分之一也正是1,150千伏安。

*                    *Paying for that new carpet has eaten into my** savings.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

double  v. (cause sth to) become twice as much or as many

从天下的角度来看,风力和太阳热辐射能项目竞价价格的回退,对进级新的可再生能源体量做出了贡献。

                  "grid updates have doubled network costs since 2008-09"

Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76) per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

dromedary n 单峰骆驼

前一个月,英帝国政党举行了风力场的竞价会,两家市廛同意创立每小时发生57.50韩元(约合76澳元)的百万瓦特的配备。那几个价钱已是五年前新建筑工程厂的八分之四。意味着在U.K.,海上风力发电第二次比原子能发电要有扶持。

price stay high; price falls; sb. slash prices

Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects to develop the"next generation" of technology in wind and wave power.

grumble ~ (at/to sb) (about/at/over sth): complain or protest in a bad-tempered way

大不列颠及英格兰联合王国和九州的商量人口今日宣告了七个新类型去商量“下三个时代“的风能和波浪能的科技(science and technology卡塔尔(قطر‎。

             *Why grumble at me about your own stupid mistakes?*

The UK's Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also receive funding from the  of China.

"Smart grids bolstered by big data will do more to keep demand in line with supply."

大不列颠及英格兰联合王国的当然财富商讨委员会和工程及自然科委会在现在八年会为那几个类型出资四百万法郎。中中原人民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会出资。

bolster v.: ~ sb/sth (up)give support to sb/sth; strengthen or reinforce sth.

           bolster sb's morale/courage

*           *The government borrowed money to bolster up the economy.**

nibble v. ~ (at sth)take tiny bites of sth; eat small amounts

crowd-sourcing(众包): the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers

lay waste : to cause very bad damage to (something)

*                 The fire laid waste tothe land.*

恶性逻辑导图

后周究竟一时间大改了,但是即日先打个卡给本身一点典礼感

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 9

Annie示范

澳门威斯尼斯人手机版 10

补第四天作业

Summary

As alternative to fosil fuels, renewables are welcomed by greens and seen by governments as tools to combat climate change. With subisidies from governments in both developed and developing countries, the past few decades saw growth in renewables. Yet renewables only account for 7% in the world's energy, while fosil fuels take up 80%. But their subsidy-driven growth did push their price down. Yet if they continue to penetrate into the energy market, it will not only hurt traditional energy industry, but also pose difficulties for the renewable industry itself.

Except the facilities, generating wind and solar power themselves does not cost a dime. That means the more renewables created, the more they are likely to drag down energy price. This will drive some traditional energy companies out of the market and, moreover, hurt the renewable producers themselves. For if the price goes down, so will private investors' profitablity and their willingness to pour money into this industry. Yet as the industry expands, it needs more financial support. With decreasing private investment, the government will be pressured to give renewable producers more subsidies.

Another flaw for renewables is their intermittency. So it's impossible for us to totally depend on renewables; we also need traditional energy when no wind or sunshine is available.As for the customers of traditional companies, some will shift to renewables. And those who continue to use fosil fuel generated energy have to bear higher price given the decreasing demand. Moreover, in California home generators are allowed to fed excessive energy from their solar panels into the gird; the grid is complaining about the payment.

To ensure enough fossil- fuel capacity available, the government need to subsidize more to those companies. Yet some of these fuels,like brown coal,are dirty. In the long run ,we can build a smart system combined with renewables and standby fossil fuel capacity and make it a package deal. The customer pay for the service to ensure continued supply of electricity under this system. Yet today's grid system were not built for remittant solar and wind power. So investment are needed to make sure facilities including a smart grid system in place. That may arouse political issues for citizens may complain about higher prices to support these investments and possible blackouts.

The progress may be slow and renewables are not expected to power every home.

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